Outside London, there is the Glasgow Subway which is the third oldest rapid transit system in the world opened They consist of several railway lines connecting city centre stations of major cities to suburbs and surrounding towns. Train services and ticketing are fully integrated with the national rail network and are not considered separate.
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In London, a route for Crossrail 2 has been safeguarded. Tram systems were popular in the United Kingdom in the late 19th and early 20th century. However, with the rise of the car they began to be widely dismantled in the s. By only the Blackpool tramway and the Glasgow Corporation Tramways remained; the final Glasgow service was withdrawn on 2 September Recent years have seen a revival the United Kingdom, as in other countries, of trams together with light rail systems.
These carry about one third of the nation's traffic, and occupy about 0. The Highways Agency an Executive Agency of the Department for Transport is responsible for maintaining motorways and trunk roads in England. Other English roads are maintained by local authorities. Toll roads are rare in the United Kingdom, though there are a number of toll bridges. Road traffic congestion has been identified as a key concern for the future prosperity of the United Kingdom, and policies and measures are being investigated and developed by the government to reduce congestion. In , the Government published proposals for a United Kingdom-wide road pricing scheme.
This was designed to be revenue neutral with other motoring taxes to be reduced to compensate. Driving is on the left. On 29 April , the UK Supreme Court ruled that the government must take immediate action to cut air pollution,  following a case brought by environmental lawyers at ClientEarth.
The National Cycle Network , created by the charity Sustrans , is the UK's major network of signed routes for cycling. It uses dedicated bike paths as well as roads with minimal traffic, and covers 14, miles, passing within a mile of half of all homes. Local bus services cover the whole country. In Northern Ireland coach, bus and rail services remain state-owned and are provided by Translink. Coaches provide long-distance links throughout the UK: in England and Wales the majority of coach services are provided by National Express.
Megabus run no-frills coach services in competition with National Express and services in Scotland in co-operation with Scottish Citylink. Due to the United Kingdom's island location, before the Channel Tunnel the only way to enter or leave the country apart from air travel was on water, except at the border between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Three major ports handle the most freight traffic:. For long periods of recent history, Britain had the largest registered merchant fleet in the world, but it has slipped down the rankings partly due to the use of flags of convenience.
There are also ships registered in other countries, and foreign-owned ships registered in the United Kingdom. Ferries, both passenger only and passengers and vehicles, operate within the United Kingdom across rivers and stretches of water. Orkney Ferries provides services within the Orkney Isles ; and NorthLink Ferries provides services from the Scottish mainland to Orkney and Shetland , mainly from Aberdeen although other ports are also used. Holyhead and Fishguard are the principal ports for ferries between Wales and Ireland.
Passenger ferries operate internationally to nearby countries such as France, the Republic of Ireland , Belgium , the Netherlands , and Spain. Ferries usually originate from one of the following:. Cruise ships depart from the United Kingdom for destinations worldwide, many heading for ports around the Mediterranean and Caribbean. The Solent is a world centre for yachting and home to largest number of private yachts in the world. Major canal building began in the United Kingdom after the onset of the Industrial revolution in the 18th century.
A large canal network was built and it became the primary method of transporting goods throughout the country; however, by the s with the development of the railways, the canal network began to go into decline. The United Kingdom also has a well-developed [ citation needed ] network of organisations offering education and professional development in the transport and logistics sectors. A number of Universities offer degree programmes in transport, usually covering transport planning, engineering of transport infrastructure, and management of transport and logistics services.
Professional development for those working in the transport and logistics sectors is provided by a number of Professional Institutes representing specific sectors. These include:. Through these professional bodies, transport planners and engineers can train for a number of professional qualifications, including:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Air transport in the United Kingdom.
See also: Busiest airports in the United Kingdom by total passenger traffic.
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Main article: Urban rail in the United Kingdom. Main article: Roads in the United Kingdom. Main article: Cycling in the United Kingdom.
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Main article: Bus transport in the United Kingdom. Main article: Coach transport in the United Kingdom. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: canals of the United Kingdom. Archived from the original on 1 June UK Treasury. Int Panis; P.
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September Archived from the original on 17 January Retrieved 2 March RAC Foundation. The British Chambers of Commerce. Archived from the original on 25 October Retrieved 18 November Roads Service Northern Ireland.
Tillett in South Conduit Street in fn. An estimated 68 per cent of adult males were employed in clothing 59 per cent in silk in and only 48 per cent 39 per cent in silk in Bethnal Green dominated the Spitalfields weaving industry, having 77 per cent of the looms and 82 per cent of the families employed. Of a total of 7, working looms, 2, were in Church and 2, in Town ward. Besides the 7, people employed as weavers 4, men, 2, women, and the rest children and apprentices , there were unemployed weavers and who called themselves weavers but had had to part with their looms; 3, families were at work, most owning one or two looms.
Nine per cent of the looms in Church ward and 5 per cent in Town ward produced Jacquard velvet or figured silk, compared with 4 per cent in Hackney Road and barely 3 per cent in Green ward. By far the largest output was of plain goods, ranging from 61 per cent in Church ward to 86 per cent in Hackney Road. Velvets, which made up the rest, in required distinct operations to make 1".
Only two wealthy silkmasters were said to live in Bethnal Green in They included one in Elizabeth Street, off Hackney Road, in , fn. Craftsmen in the early 17th century included an ironyer , fn. Brewing, besides serving the local market, included a share in one of the big commercial breweries. Production rose from 60, barrels in to , in fn. There were two other breweries in , fn. John Street, in , when there was also an ale brewer in Austin Street. The north side of Hackney Road by had a brewery in Gwynne's Place fn. Ropemaking, requiring a long strip of ground, was established partly to serve the shipping industry.
Liberty to 'carry a ropewalk' was included in a lease of land north of Green Street in Warehouses and factories began to appear in the late 18th century. There was a warehouse in Sweetapple Court on Austens in Paty and Burchall in St. John Street c. It employed only a few hands in fn.
Matthew's Place at the eastern end of Hackney Road; fn. In there were warehouses in Digby and Carter streets and a factory in Church Row fn. A factory, usually called Archall's or Archill, fn. Factories employed only a minority of the workforce. Large numbers affected by the decline of silkweaving in the s and s were absorbed into home- or workshop-based industries. The chief manufactures, lacking the monopoly position of silk, were furniture, clothing, and shoemaking.
One cabinet maker and several weavers were among 14 people eligible for parish office in Botolph's Bishopsgate, was a cabinet maker in Bethnal Green in Numbers multiplied, to 26 cabinet making, chair making, and upholstering establishments by , 84 by , and by Steam saw mills fostered the expansion fn. Although cabinet and chair makers were the most numerous, there were many specialists to make other articles of furniture, frames, or boxes, besides carvers, workers in cane, ivory, bone, willow or veneer, and upholsterers, japanners, and french polishers. The industry was small-scale, in homes or workshops; a chair maker in Clarence Place who employed 8 men was exceptional and there was apparently only one furniture factory, in Hope Street.
There were at least three saw mills and 16 timberyards in the early s, of which 8 yards were in Bethnal Green Road and 4 in Gosset Street. When the 15 a. Mills often let space and steam power to up to 20 specialist workers. Increasing mechanization brought cheaper products, carvers for example being replaced by machine mouldings. The intense competition and many small workshops which eluded inspection encouraged sweating, which was exacerbated by Jewish immigration.
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In Brick Lane was notorious for boy labour, many garret masters worked people until By 7, men and 1, women mostly french polishers worked in the wood and furniture industry, 3, of them as cabinet makers. There were 7, men and 1, women workers in , fn. Few firms were long lived, White Bros. After a slight decline during the First World War, the industry continued to expand, to cabinet and chair making and upholstery establishments by , the highest concentration in the country and employing 5, people in factories.
Many hand-made furniture and french polishing workshops closed. The move towards larger premises was reinforced by the need for more space for electrically driven machinery. Larger firms were sited along the Regent's canal or its eastward branch, the Hertford Union, where rents were lower than in the west. To the east one firm had more than employees, three had , and one had Slum clearance and bombing reduced their numbers, as did the shortage of timber after Many small firms, however, continued into the s in the traditional areas like Hackney Road.
The clothing industry arose from the secondhand trade which had existed around Houndsditch since the 16th century and spread eastward to focus on Petticoat Lane. By the early 19th century clothes were 'clobbered' or renovated and a market developed for cheap clothing, including uniforms. The change, origin of the sweating system, was owed to middlemen who commissioned the work as cheaply as possible. Although less numerous than weavers or wood workers, clothing workers were in all districts by Specialized activities included making buttons and artificial flowers, and preparing ostrich feathers, while in East Street off Russia Lane Edward Thurgood employed 16 men to make elastic hat bands fn.
Mechanization, following the introduction of the sewing machine to Britain in and the handsaw in , hastened specialization and sweating. Middlemen, who arranged outlets for an agreed number of goods, contracted with the workshops or homeworkers, who often subcontracted individual processes.
Competition drove down prices while the skilled tailor was superseded by machines and cheap labour, increasingly women, children, and immigrants. Although workshops existed throughout the parish, there were a group producing mixed garments east of the canal, two larger ones on each side of Bethnal Green Road, and makers of men's coats in Cambridge Road and around Brick Lane. In 1, were employed in textiles and 12, 62 per cent of them women in dress, which probably included shoemaking.
Shoemakers were among the 10, employed in textiles and dress, the largest category of employment, in Strikes by the tailors' unions in reduced working hours to 12 a day fn. In there were tailoring establishments, made up of ready-made, wholesale mantle, and 82 retail bespoke firms. In there were 41 clothing firms 33 of them tailors , which employed outworkers of them in tailoring , fn.
There were a few large firms in gentlemen's tailoring, one in Bethnal Green Road with employees making army clothing, one, London Co-operative Tailoring, employing nearby. Most firms were small, Jewish, short lived, and employed more women than men. By the borough's share of the London clothing industry had declined from 3. In Teesdale and Blythe streets tailoring firms decreased from 26 in to 10 in Silberston survived in but by had been replaced by sportswear manufacturers.
A new firm with employees had opened by to make coats. It fought back with increasing mechanization, for example using lasers for cutting, and employing immigrants. By it was estimated that 95 per cent of the Bengalis in Tower Hamlets worked in the industry, often in conditions reminiscent of the sweating of the s. The turnover of small firms continued and emphasis was placed on the fashion industry. Footwear making in was represented by two curriers and leather cutters, a bootmaker's, a ladies' shoe manufacturer, and a boot warehouse in Bethnal Green Road and a bootmaker in Dog Row.
Some chamber masters prospered and opened warehouses for shoes made by others. Fierce competition, partly from the Northampton factories, drove down wages and led to great poverty. Mayhew told of one Bethnal Green shoemaker, originally a weaver, who lived with 15 people in a damp kitchen where he worked from 5. By 3, people were employed in the footwear industry. Upper-making was usually carried on at home; the rivetting of boots, largely for working-class children, was concentrated in the east while the sewing of uppers 'sew-round' was done by groups, often Jews, women and children, mainly in the west.
A strike against outwork in forced the manufacturers to have all lasting and finishing done on their own premises by their own workers. There were 2, men and 1, women bootmakers in , when there were more wholesalers and fewer individual craftsmen, although premises were distributed much as in In 25 boot and shoe firms employed outworkers. The other three were for a repairer, a dealer, and a maker of baby shoes. Eight more firms were scattered throughout the borough and included two in Vyner Street on the northern border, one of which M. Rubin's and one wholesaler left in the borough.
Bethnal Green Road had lost all connexion with shoes except for a repairer and some retailers. The paper and printing industry was also based mainly on small firms and developed during the early 19th century. Although many local boys and at least one girl were apprenticed to London printers and bookbinders in the 18th, fn. The Hands were a family of paper-stainers in Old Nichol Street c. There were a bookbinder in Tyssen Street, two print block cutters, one for paperstainers in Cheshire Street and another in Cambridge Road, and four printers.
Many inmates of the neighbouring Jewish Converts Institute were classified as printers, bookbinders, and compositors.
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The industry, with some who worked from home, included pocket book makers, book folders, paper makers and marblers, compositors, a manufacturer of printing ink in Northampton Street, and a porter in an envelope factory. There was a paper bag factory at the Octagon, Somerford Street, in fn. Cullen built a paper factory in Chisendale Road in Firms in included some large ones, especially bookbinders near the canal, and several printers south of Bethnal Green Road. Matthew's Row, for example, making way for the Granby Street scheme in Among many manufactures by were coaches, pianos, umbrellas, soap, and various metals.
His factory had passed to Richard Sturtevant and Charles Turner by and to Charles Croft, tallow chandler, by fn. Lane in Cranbrook Street in , fn. In many, mostly small, firms made metal goods, including furniture or springs. Small firms were mainly in the western part of the borough and larger ones in the east, among them an engineering firm on the canal and others around Bethnal Green Road. Noxious industries, uncontrolled, included horse boiling in Digby Street and near Dog Row in , fn.
By products included combs, spectacles, surgical instruments, fn. There was a match manufacturer in Orange Street in Food firms established during the s included Liebig's Malted Food Co. Colman, the Norwich mustard manufacturers, had starch works on the north side of the green by the mid s when they built warehouses there.
Bovill manufactured sauces and pickles in Derbyshire Street by and closed between and Food, drink, and tobacco provided employment for 6, people in but only 1, in , possibly because the census introduced a new category of warehousemen, storekeepers, and packers, of whom there were 2, By there were five jellied eel firms but only 19 bakers and confectioners, five meat and sausage firms, and three breweries, while there had been a marked decline in tobacco.
Chemical firms, apart from the dye factory at the green and white lead works in Hollybush Gardens, included William T. Hunt, druggists who had a warehouse and factory in Victoria Park Square in They secured part of Letchford Buildings in Three Colts Lane in , enlarging their warehouse in A factory for the instruments was built alongside the existing premises in and given an extra floor after fire damage in When the underlease expired in , Hanbury was leased the whole premises, to which he transferred all his manufacturing and wholesale work.
A new factory was built in fn. Bombed again in , the firm acquired neighbouring bombed sites with a frontage on Cambridge Road for a brick and concrete building to house the engineering and surgical departments, although much of its manufacturing was transferred to Ware Herts. The company merged with Glaxo Group Ltd. A glass manufacturer in Brick Lane, fn. Five glass firms survived until , although only Dorell Glass Co. A brush manufacturer employed 10 men near Cheshire Street fn. Mason Pearson Bros. Industry had spread from the brickfields and weavers' houses of the west and south-west to reach Cambridge Road and the green by Between fn.
Industrial development quickened in the s. Applications were made in to build 34 warehouses, seven of them east of Cambridge Road, fn. Many employees worked for firms elsewhere, Bethnal Green in possessing nearly half as many more workers than could be employed in the borough. It had a large number of working women: 80 per cent of those aged , who were mostly unmarried, 22 per cent of married women, and 50 per cent of widows in There were 1, factories employing 15, people in , but more people left the borough for work.
Reduced by bombing, there were factories in A quarter of them had more than 10 workers but they accounted for nearly 80 per cent 9, of the factory workforce of 11, There were hundreds of small manufacturers, many using premises damaged or vacant in the course of rebuilding schemes, and there was no shortage of work. Changes came when rebuilding schemes proved only too successful in disentangling factories from housing, and in reducing the total amount of industry. By the late s the number of factories had fallen by 44 per cent and their loss, with its concomitant unemployment, was 'disastrous'.
One large employer, Albion brewery, was replaced by a large retailer, Sainsbury's. Many old factories and workshops remained, often amidst dereliction, and although most of the firms were new, the industries were mainly old: clothes, furniture, printing, and leather goods. In the 18th century occupations included those of baker, chandler, and pawnbroker.
In 36 inhabitants of Church Street Bethnal Green Road protested at stalls selling fish and fruit 'before our houses', especially on Sundays, and attracting crowds using bad language. In a feature of the Monday and Tuesday morning markets was the hiring of children by weavers. Sunday markets flourished because Saturday was pay night and any money left over from the public house was spent by women on Sunday dinner. It was built to resemble a cathedral in a high Gothic style of the most expensive materials, teak, granite, and Irish marble, and entered through wrought-iron gates.
Run by a committee more familiar with charities than markets, the project had failed within a year, shunned by the local population which preferred its street stalls and sabotaged by dealers in existing markets. The quadrangle was roofed over and stalls were provided rent-free, 20 to wholesalers, the rest to middlemen or retailers.
Management of the market was transferred to the City of London in but there were only 41 market tenants in and the corporation handed it back in An arrangement was made with railway companies in and Columbia Meat Co. Reopened in and in 'more successful than formerly', fn. The decision taken in to replace 'easily the most spectacular piece of design in Bethnal Green' fn.
The traditional street market flourished throughout the fluctuating fortunes of Columbia Market.