In Cubans were closer to whites 27 percent and 22 percent of births to unmarried mothers respectively , while Puerto Ricans were closer to blacks 59 percent and 69 percent of births to unmarried mothers, respectively. Mexicans and Central and South Americans fell between the extremes, with 41 percent and 44 percent of births to unmarried mothers respectively.
While nonmarital childbearing has increased for all groups, there was a substantial decrease in the percentage of births to young teen mothers for almost all groups between and However, the decline was smaller for most Hispanic subgroups compared with whites and blacks. The figures for the former groups are more similar to that of blacks, while those for the latter are similar to that of whites. Foreign-born Hispanic women have higher fertility than their native-born counterparts and non-Hispanic women.
For example, on average, second-generation Mexican women have 2. Although in recent years immigration has edged out fertility as the chief component of Hispanic population growth, the reverse may soon be true because of the swelling second generation resulting from immigrant fertility. If it is assumed that immigration will continue its current gradual increase, births are likely to surpass immigration as the principal component driving Hispanic population growth because the number of Hispanic women of childbearing age will have grown significantly.
As Figure shows, this source of demographic momentum is projected to continue well into the current century. After , the ratio of births to immigrants per decade should approximate the proportions attained in the s—nearly —except that the absolute numbers added will be more than five times larger: 21 million versus 4 million persons added to the population every 10 years. Given the influence of immigration in the rapid compounding of the Hispanic population, it is interesting to speculate how the U.
This exercise also illustrates the extent to which immigration has contributed to the size of the Hispanic population. Figure shows a projected comparison of the growth in the total U. However, immigration and the fertility of foreign-born women have increased the Hispanic population by more than percent. Thus, had the United States closed its borders to immigrants after , the Hispanic population would have been much smaller—a mere 14 million versus the projected 38 million—and would account for only 6 percent of million U.
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Immigration and birth rates vary among Hispanic subgroups and by social class, generation, and legal status. Foreign-born Mexicans doubled their numbers between the and censuses, while other subgroups, although smaller in absolute size, grew at even faster rates. As a result of the. The number of foreign-born Dominicans, Peruvians, and Bolivians doubled in the s, and then doubled again in the s. New migrant streams such as these generally portend increased momentum of immigration because once established, immigrant social networks provide a powerful impetus for future flows.
These circumstances also contribute to the growth of undocumented immigration.
NMAP : Scholars
A distinctive feature of Hispanic immigration is the large and growing number of undocumented immigrants. The best contemporary estimate is that close to 11 million undocumented migrants resided in the United States in , 80 percent of them from Mexico and other Latin American countries.
Many decades in the making, undocumented Hispanic immigration is in part a consequence of both employer demand for cheap, hardworking laborers and failed immigration policy see Table During the mids, Operation Wetback resulted in the repatriation of even larger numbers of Mexicans—again, legal residents and U. Several other factors have contributed to the intense flow of undocumented immigration from Mexico. First, the termination in of the Bracero Accords, which authorized a binational agricultural guestworker program, signaled the closing of an important labor safety valve precisely at.
Created a system of national quotas that restricted immigration to 2 percent of national origin groups as of Advocated by Senator Joseph McCarthy, required the registration and fingerprinting of all aliens, and enforced laws regarding immigration and deportation. Reinstated the national origins quota system , and limited total annual immigration to one-sixth of 1 percent of the continental population. Extended the right of naturalization to all races. Granted priority to family reunification and repealed the national origins quota system. A combination ceiling of both Eastern and Western Hemispheres totaling , It also extended the 20, per country maximum to Western Hemisphere countries.
Established to harbor people fleeing Vietnam; granted asylum to politically oppressed refugees. Sanctioned employers who hired undocumented workers; granted amnesty to approximately 3 million undocumented residents. Increased criminal penalties for immigration-related offenses, authorized increases in enforcement personnel, enhanced enforcement authority, and made immigrant sponsorship legally enforceable.
Increased H-1B visa quotas from to for skilled information technology workers. H-1B visas allow foreign nationals with special skills to work in the United States. Raised the annual limit for H-1Bs in fiscal years through from the previous , to , Permitted the reunion of families long separated by delays in the processing of immigrant visas. Broadened the grounds for excluding terrorists and aliens with ties to terrorist organizations and detaining immigrants thought to be involved in terrorist activities. Increased the number of Immigration and Naturalization Service INS personnel and authorized appropriations for INS, Border Patrol, and consular personnel, training, facilities, and security-related technology.
Many immigrants went through the process of legalization with the help of their employers. Others, planning to be in the United States only temporarily, decided not to legalize to avoid the bureaucratic delays involved and stayed in the country illegally. Second, the amendment to the Hart-Celler Act that tightened requirements for legally authorized immigration from Mexico inadvertently increased pressure for undocumented entry into the United States to skirt the requirements. Finally, legislation designed to curb the flow of undocu-.
IRCA provided amnesty for undocumented immigrants who met specific residence requirements. It also imposed sanctions on employers who hired undocumented workers and launched what would become a series of initiatives to close the border through various surveillance measures.
Ironically, once again, some aspects of the legislation actually encouraged unauthorized migration, particularly from Mexico. For example, provisions that gave growers a 2-day warning prior to labor inspections provided a window for an unabated flow of unauthorized workers that was enabled by the strong social networks among farmworkers.
After adjusting their legal status, legalized immigrants could. The sheer numbers of undocumented immigrants legalized under IRCA—nearly 3 million, the majority from Latin America—demonstrated that employer sanctions and enhanced border control, which were originally intended to reduce illegal migration flows into the country, had been highly inefficient.
Undocumented workers were banned from a wide range of publicly funded support programs and services, including access to in-state college tuition for undocumented youths who graduated from U. Ironically, because this was not the intention, by sharpening the divide between legal immigrants and citizens, IIRAIRA triggered an upsurge in naturalization applications. For example, in , the year IIRAIRA was enacted, a record number of Mexican migrants applied for naturalization—triple the number from the year before. Despite intensified surveillance efforts along the mile U.
The Immigration and Naturalization Service now U. Citizenship and Immigration Services of the Department of Homeland Security estimated net annual undocumented immigration at , immigrants during the s, but the Census Bureau and others estimate the number at almost half a million per year, on average. Currently, undocumented immigrants make up more than 40 percent of the foreign-born population in 10 states.
The key lesson to be learned from the persistent growth in the size of the undocumented U.
Formidable social risks await the large numbers of undocumented Hispanics forced to live in the shadows of mainstream America. Negative public perceptions of undocumented workers stigmatize legitimate low-wage Hispanic workers by conflating their social and legal status, and since September 11, , associating illegal status with criminal status. Such views also compromise the life chances of the U. National boundaries are rendered meaningless in complex families in which some members are citizens and others are undocumented.
The problems U. In the United States, about 10 percent of children live in households in which at least one parent is a noncitizen and one child is a citizen. For example, children living with noncitizen parents constitute about a fifth of children nationwide who are uninsured. Its growth is fueled by both immigration and high fertility. A large and growing number of undocumented immigrants is another distinctive feature of the Hispanic population.
Against the reality of the need for and supply of unskilled workers, the social question regarding undocumented migration is not about simply stopping the flow, for its course is dictated largely by intertwined regional economies. Rather, the core questions concern the terms of admission for those who enter legally, the treatment of those who enter and work without the protection of legal.
Although the U. See Appendix A. Statistics based on the census reported herein are based on adjusted counts. Augustine, Florida, founded in , is the oldest city in the United States. The 4 million Puerto Ricans living on the island are not considered in this report because their social, political, and economic circumstances differ in profound ways from those of their mainland counterparts.
These projections set the level of immigration for at a little over 7 million. For subsequent periods, continuing increases in immigration are assumed, albeit at relatively low levels—namely 5 percent over each 5-year period in the baseline projections. More details are provided in Passel, Estimates of the undocumented population vary from 8 to 12 million. Annual increases have been revised upward from , to , Passel, The Center for Immigration Studies claims that half of the 4. Public Broadasting Service, The Border. This measure has been abrogated in several states that have passed legislation to override the restriction.
See Tienda, Given current demographic trends, nearly one in five U.
New American Destinies: A Reader in Contemporary Asian and Latino Immigration
This major demographic shift and its implications for both the United States and the growing Hispanic population make Multiple Origins, Uncertain Destinies a most timely book. This report from the National Research Council describes how Hispanics are transforming the country as they disperse geographically.
It considers their roles in schools, in the labor market, in the health care system, and in U. It describes the trajectory of the younger generations and established residents, and it projects long-term trends in population aging, social disparities, and social mobility that have shaped and will shape the Hispanic experience.
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