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As Salam Alaekum warahmattullah wabarahkahtuhu I felt my heart beat much faster as I drove into the Masjid, I wondered how the meeting with Yusuf would turn out. I realized that I was unconsciously hoping his trip to Me…. As Salam Alaekum Sisters: I hope you had a spiritually rewarding Ramadan like I did and you remembered me in your duas. Each ti…. Dear Diary: I just listened to a nice lecture about marriage on the Deen Show. Dear Diary, Keeping you is now becoming some type of soothing therapy session for my sometimes worried mind, thank you for taking in all my rants! The Islamic dating seminar was an eye opener, I heard so much that I left….

Its been over a month since I came back from Nigeria and I still have nightmares about the whole experience, sigh! My name is Niyah, I am 29 years old, and I come from a nice loving family made up of my parents, two sisters and one brother. I have always found road trips more fascinating and somewhat more adventurous than any other form of transportation. Of course putting into consideration the purpose of travel and length of time, they may not always be i….

With the recent Ebola plague that has hit Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone, and all the negative publicity that is out there about Islam, a group of young Liberian Muslims were inspired to start a social media challenge …. Being happy is very essential in our lives. Wearing a dimpled smile does not mean happiness always. Sometimes we fake it to make people think we are living a perfect life even when we are not. For me, happiness is depend…. I read the article your magazine posted yesterday on why Muslim women do not enjoy sex and I noticed a lot of the blame was put at the doorstep of men.

The presentation was as if men are vultures, made to devour and get …. I do not have the power to be in every bedroom, my experience is from my work counseling several couples most especially woman and also from a lot of personal experience. I know sex, I understand sex and I recognise its …. We live in the world of Brazilian weaves, long, fake lashes, artificial nails, whitenicious, age defying make up, skimpy, revealing clothes and bum shorts. We live in a world where people attain celebrity status just for….

Hold to forgiveness, command what is right, and turn away from the ignorant. I do not think the…. But verily the home in the hereafter, that is life indeed, if they but knew" Ankabut What is the first thing that come to our minds when we hear the word …. I watched Mrs. Doubtfire growing up and was in awe with Robin Williams playing a nanny, so when news of his death filtered in earlier this week, it was indeed a sad reminder of possibilities conceivable in the human mind…. Life they say is a passing moment and everyone has different paths, stories and d….

When I ask people if they are attracted to someone not like them, they say yes. For me, that is only applicable in laboratories where we were being taught "like charges repel, unlike charges attracts". In facts, I dis co…. Woman was made of a rib out of side, not made out of his head to rule over him or under his feet to trample upon but by his side to be equal with him, under his arm to be protected and near his heart to be loved — Mathew….

Love they say is like a quicksand in the hands, open the hand and it stays, clutch it and it darts away. Love as defined by neurologists is a chemical reaction in the brain, an illusion that cannot be seen or touched whi…. I own a recruitment agency and come across several applications from supposedly promising Nigerian graduates who do not get far with me.

I have a problem with people who do not write or speak well. I also have a problem …. As a young girl, my mother taught me that virginity is a pride to be held to high esteem. I lived through my teenage years with this belief in my consciousness and sub-consciousness. As a socialite which could be classified as a moderate Muslim, I was considered a tad bit better, at…. I am a trader and run a nice little shop in Ibadan, Oyo state. I love what I do as it allows me to interact with people and provide their basic needs.

I also love my customers and they love me too. One evening, I closed …. While still basking in the euphoria of my recent admission into the Nigerian Law School, I woke up to read a recent edition of a Lagos based newspapers and to my utter consternation, I was succinctly captivated by an hea….

Sufism in Brief

I read a lot of blogs and notice readers complain about the length of the articles. A few weeks ago, I attended the 2nd year reunion of my Executive MBA Class with whom I had spent two very intense and exciting years at Rice University between and It was great to see several people again and …. Change, they say is the measure of life, the only constant thing in life, the particular reason that there has been development and dynamism through the passing of time.

We are all travellers passing through time, aspiri…. I had been engaged in different games of sports while growing up and had learnt to imbibe the spirit of sportsmanship; win some, lose some. If you won all the time,…. Our mothers tell us that a good girl should be seen and not heard; that a good girl should never ask questions; that a good girl should be pleased …. So I get a call from home am in school saying my dad is ill.

It was a warm summer morning. I had just moved to a new environment after completing my university studies. My Dreams ended abruptly as soon as I heard the call to prayers at dawn. I jumped off the bed and hurried to the mosque. Something was different about today and I could feel it. While we sat outside for ablution physica….

I am a strivi…. No one comes to the Father except through me. History will exist to acknowledge without bias that the greatest success recorded in human relationship was among the Muslims of the time of the Prophet SAW. The fact that this success has deteriorated over the years t…. When it comes to Nollywood movies and their usually misogynist interpretations of the Nigeria…. Sound funny? The facts and circumstances may vary between cases but the mundane plot is fairly consistent: boy meets girl or vice versa.

After some ritual of famil…. A while ago, I thought differently of the world I lived in. For that, I tried, as hard as it…. We all crave for beautiful, spotless and radiant skin but we think to beautiful skin is all about …. As I drove my car into the premises, I noticed a beautifully structured mosque at the entrance of the gate.

I parked my car, got down and went into the reception area. When I entered the main building I noticed two rooms…. The role of food in a person's life cannot be disregarded as it is very necessary for his survival; for the nourishment of his body and mind. Eating food in the right proportion to supply essential nutrients to the body …. Flatulence a. It is normal for the intestine to produce gas which is passed out through the anus at regular intervals.

So it is n…. Surah Yunus 57 Ebola was first discovered in by a scientist in the…. Then why indulge that bulgling tummy that make nearly everybody sees you as a good candidate for the Ante-Natal clinic near your home. Having sexy, flat tummy, looking hippy, trim and smart …. As-salaam alaykum waramatullah wabarakatuhu.

Here, we will be discussing about the different kinds of challenge that mothers, carers, and…. All babies like one-to-one human contact and attention. However, some young children refuse to be…. The speech that forms the main content of this article is over years old, from the pre-Islamic period. A desolate highway, a lonely hardworking girl, a bunch of street misfits with cruelty in their hearts.

A gang rape that leaves a girl shattered for life. The tragedy in Haiti, the extreme weather conditions in Europe and Australia, the floods in India, hurricanes, bush fires, and tsunamis; these are the order of the day. Signs of the end times, perhaps? We can attribute a…. A serene silence greeted me as my voice died down. I called out again, mustering up strength to increase the volume of the resonance that emitted from the mouth.

After a while, the gloomy noiseless hanging heavier in the…. I do not know how long I was without conscious, wavering between obscurity and light but he nurses told me I was gone for several hours before and after I reached the hospital. They said I had first come conscious in the…. We stared at him, strikingly perplexed.

Nobody had seen him coming and even so we were equally astonished to se…. Did I ever think I would? The tho…. It was a long drive home that Friday evening, the Ikoyi streets seemingly more overcrowded than usual. Motorists were pursuing home with such ardor that the frenzy they caused could be smelt in the atmosphere. It was a r…. Apple's portable devices iPod Touch, iPhone, and now the iPad allow users to download games, ebook readers, music, video, and other useful and entertaining "apps" applications. You can also use your iPad, iPhone, or …. They hav…. As I was driving to work this week, I noticed that cars further up the road were swerving to avoid something.

As the car in front of me swerved I finally got to…. With over ethnic tribes, picturesque hills and mountains, mangrove forests, waterfalls, rivers Niger and Benue, and even the Atlantic Ocean, there are endless and untapped inspiration and ideas in Nigeria for your ho…. One of the joys of this publication is to keep on inspiring young Muslims and to encourage men and women to dig deep and find their true calling in life. Indeed we are all made for unique purposes and it is most wonderfu….

Writing this piece on Arab Interior Design reminds me of Aladdin, his lamp and carpet. Pray More An additional 15 minute prayer time in unorthodox places like the car, aside from the prescribed daily prayers goes a long way. More often than not Nigerians like to buy foreign made bags and shoes, our markets are filled with Italian, Spanish, American, Bangkok, Thailand and of course Chinese made shoes.

I had received the mail earlier in the day, about a janaza at the mosque after Zuhr. It is indeed wonderful to know t…. From time immemorial, Nigerians have bought foreign made underwears, and it looked like no one ever thought of producing these very essential pieces of clothing around here. It was thus refreshing when we ran into Halima…. Indeed, all praise is due to Allaah. We praise Him and seek His help and forgiveness. He whom Allaah guides, no one can misguide; and he w…. I grew up in a family of six, my parents,two elder brothers and one elder sister.

I am the last. I attended Bells University, Ota, …. I presently live in Arlington, Texas, United States. I grew up in Northern part of Nigeria, Kano to be precise and…. In Islam, however, respec…. Focusing on food to the extent that people begin to worry about eating more then actually fasting. This also goes along with…. Our Knowledge - Wasted by not taking action with it 2. Our Actions - Wasted by committing them with out sincerity 3. Our Wealth - Wasted by using on things that will not bring us reward. We waste our money, our stat…. The car parking lots of movie theatres seem to be always full.

Even during late nights, there seem to be always people gathering to watch the latest movies. The movies are usually one to two hours long, yet the audienc…. There was a little boy visiting his grandparents on their farm. He was given a slingshot to play with out in the woods. He practiced in the woods, but he could never hit the target. Getting a little discouraged, he heade….

When you are tired and discouraged From fruitless efforts …. Allah has counted your tears If you feel that your life is on h…. He is the one who falls short of doing ablution properly, not performing prayer on time and within specified limits …. Rabbana taqabbal minna innaka antas Sameeaul Aleem Our Lord! It corrodes and withers away.

Every passing day propels us closer towards our appointment with Death and the hereafter while simultaneously we are moving away fro…. I wish to cite two examples in our history of where an opportunity was seized and another of where it was lost: 1 In the Khilaafate of Sayyiduna Umar May Allah be pleased with him , during one of his famous nightly pa….

Tirmidhi As a Muslim, you will have trouble keeping up with prayers…. To prepare us for the coming month, sister Umm Laithy Laith has nicely compiled ten simple yet effective ways to prepare for the month …. All praise be to Allah who in his infinite mercy, has made it possible for us to be alive to witness yet another Ramadan.

Countless were those with whom we all observed Ramadan fasting last year but today are no more liv…. Failure to observe…. Fasting is obligatory upon every sane, adult and healthy Muslim male who is not on a journey at the particular time. As for female, in addition to above conditions, she is not expected to be menstruating o…. The Basics Of Fasting Night Prayer Observing night prayer during the holy month of Ramadan is one of the several acts of worship Muslims are encouraged to do.

This is so because of the enormous reward attached to it. Pre-dawn Meal As-Sahur Taking the pre-dawn meal is not compulsory but emphatically encouraged by the prophet S. The prophet S. A Muslim should be generous most especially during the holy month of Ramadan. There are different dimensions to generosity. It can be in sharing knowledge, giving financial assistance to….

Rather, it is bad for them. That which they …. His Mercy overtakes His punishment and anger. He is more merciful to His creations than a mother can be to her infants. He created man with…. If someone makes a constant practice of its recitatio…. Most people confuse the five pillars of Islam Faith, Prayers, Zakat, Fasting and Hajj with the six Articles of Faith and so we have decided to elaborate on the six articles of faith today. The final revelation to Proph…. It is a meritorious act of worship that could be done in any month of the year.

W was…. This one night surpasses the value of 30, nights. The most authentic account of the occurrence of the Night indicates that it can occur on any one of the last ten, odd numbered nights of Ramadan, 21, 23, 25, 27, Every Muslim is required to pay Zakat-ul-Fitr at the conclusion of the month of Ramadan as a token of thankfulness to God for having enabled him to observe fasts. Its purpose is to purify those who fast from any indecent…. Just before you all get too relaxed and forget about fasting till next Ramadan, there is still the six day fast of Shawwal.

Fasting six days of Shawwal after the obligatory fast of Ramadaan is Sunnah. It is recommended f…. Quran 25 Verses 4 - 6 And those who disbelieve say, "This [Qur'an] is not except a falsehood he invented, and another people assisted him in it. And they say, "Legends of …. There is no doubt that the month of Rajab is the key to the opening of the months of goodness and blessing.

A huge middle-aged man struggles relentlessly for freedom as three hefty men restrain …. But if one of them oppresses the other, then fight against the one that oppresses un…. One common burning question is: how …. Dajjal Abu Darda' R. Who is it? What do you want? As-Salam Alaykun, Quran 2 Verse Righteousness is not that you turn your faces toward the east or the west, but [true] righteousness is [in] one who believes in Allah , the Last Day, the angels, the Book, and the p…. I used to wish it away, 30 days …. Allah has prescribed fasting in accordance with the highest wisdom.

He has commanded the fasting person to fast in a moderate manner, so he should not harm himself by fasting or consume anything that will invalidate the …. That is better for you, if you only knew. But when the prayer is ended, disperse in the land and seek Al…. As- Salaam Alaykun, Quran 39 : 38 "And verily, if you ask them: "Who created the heavens and the earth? Whichever [name] you call - to Him belong the best names.

As-Salam Alaykun, Alhamdullilahi! We Thank Him and we …. There are hundreds of benefits associated with dhikr, the act of reciting and celebrating the praises of Allah swt. The well-known medieval scholar Ibn Al-Qaiyim mentioned more than seventy of these in his book Kitabul…. As-Salam Alaykum, Quran 2 Verses "The Messenger believes in what has been sent down to him from his Lord, and so do the believers.

Zakat ul-Fitr is often referred to as Sadaqat ul-Fitr. The word Fitr means the same as Iftar, breaking a fast and it comes from the same root word as Futur which means breakfast. Thus, Islamically, Zakat ul-Fitr is the n…. As-Salam Alaikum, Qur'an 49 Verse "O you who have believed, let not a people ridicule [another] people; perhaps they may be better than them; nor let women ridicule [other] women; perhaps they may be better than th…. The fear of the unknown circulates in many sisters who wouldn't subscribe to the use of hijabs and non-Muslim circles alike.

One common burning question is: how hot does it get under wraps? For many, the thought of wrapp…. The Final Sermon After praising, and thanking God, the Prophet, may the mercy and blessings of God be upon him, said "O People, lend me an attentive ear, for I know not whether after this year, I shall ever be amongst y…. As-salam Alaykun, QURAN 59 Verses 24 "Had We sent down this Qur'an on a mountain, you would certainly have seen it falling down, splitting asunder because of the fear of Allah, and We set forth these parables to me….

As- Salam Alaykun, QURAN 2 Verse "Hajj is [during] well-known months, so whoever has made Hajj obligatory upon himself therein [by entering the state of iuram], there is [to be for him] no sexual relations and no d…. As-Salam Alaykun, QURAN 24 verse "And let not those among you who are blessed with graces and wealth swear not to give any sort of help to their kinsmen, Al-Masakin the poor , and those who left their homes for ….

As-salam alaykun, Quran 37 verse My Lord, grant me [a child] from among the righteous. And when he reached with him [the age of] exertion, he said, "O my son, …. O Allah, O my Rabb I turn to you in repentance, in submission. I beg you. Being possessed by evil spirits or demons is nothing new, especially in these climes, Allah sent down the Mu'awwidhatayn surah ikhlas, falaq and Nas to Prophet Muhammad pbuh when Labid ibn al-A'sam, a Jewish man col….

And permitted to you are the grazing livestock, excep…. We all want to live freely, live our dreams, do what we love and run our own shows. This is a life which is usually available to everyone who chooses the entrepreneurial path. So do you want to be a successful Muslim ent…. We've all heard about finding your passion, doing what you love doing, keying into what turns you on and the likes. Deciding what career you want to pursue is exciting, but with so many career paths and interests, making…. Many job seekers do the mistake thinking only the Curriculum Vitae CV or Resume would catch the eye of our prospective employer.

But how soon we tend to forget that the unemployment rate in Nigeria is well over 23perce…. In a society like ours where we have so many graduates whether competent or not discussion for another day a lot of people are confused about how to go about job interviews and securing that needed job. Most people thi…. Your life is formed by the perspectives and philosophies you adapt, and changing your perspective can create an immediate shift in your life and business.

To succeed as an entrepreneur you must constantly look for ways t…. You may have a great idea for a product or service, but before you go any further, first make sure there's a market for it. So you have a great idea for a product, something that's bound to capture the hearts and minds …. We plan even the smallest parties; there are wedding planners, event planners everywhere in Nigeria these days.

Do you see a small market that will get big fast? Investors like to place their capital into markets that are currently tiny but are growing very fast. The reasons are simple -- first, the market being small now will …. Speakers for this event are…. Nigerian Nasheed artists such as Mohammed Abdulahi and Crescent billed to perform at the event…. There will also be Nigerian Nasheed artists such as Mohammed Abdulahi billed to perform …. We speak to the…. The package includes lecture…. Hakeem Adebomehin Presi…. Therefore the righteous women are devoutly obedient, and g….

As a smart, intelligent and pretty babe lol , I have four men on my radar and I am praying to Allah swt to guide me in the process of making a choice; a good, lasting choice. I remember watching The Sound of Music as a little girl. One of the songs that resonated with me from that movie is a duet titled 16 going on The lyrics were something like Girl: "I am 16 going on 17, baby it's time …. The wedding season is about to begin! Yes I know this is September and the Americans reading this are probably thinking, "what is she talking about? The wedding season just ended. As the Ramadan winds to an end, I have continued to pray to find my very own man and reiterate how I plan to make him happy in this dunya and the akhirah, so help me Allah.

I am spending this holy month worshiping Allah s. They say whoever one ends up with can make, mar and even ki…. Marriage is half your Deen 1. It means you love unconditionally for the sake of Allah. Naturally you expect the same treatment, but yo…. The most comprehensive advice given regarding the choice of a spouse is the teaching of our beloved Prophet Muhammad peace and blessings be upon him who said, on the authority of Abu Hurairah may Allah be pleased with….

Relationship has a cycle. Falling in love with your sp…. Fashion and technology have formed new synergy. Most of us brother don't really feel too okay putting on the Jamlamiah on Saturdays, after all that is likely what we would be putting on to Asalatu on Sunday. We also want…. We have carefully picked the following combinations for this coming Eid and as we al know, The Sunnah is to wear one's best clothes on Eid.

Alhamdulilah, I was able to get your open letter in swift time during the last few days of the Holy month of Ramadan as Allah wanted it. I must say I was moved and this has made me decide to come out of my shell to pen t…. Call ou can't miss this one! I mak….

There are several reasons why men cheat on their partners. Some people state that it is simply in their genes, that they are pre-destined to cheat, because they come from a long line of cheating relatives. Zumba to the Rescue A friend dragged me to a zumba dance class on the Island, and I must say I am hooked. For those of you who do not know, zumba combines dance and aerobic elements.

I have been careless in the past few…. I am a pretty 27 year old, size 18 going on 20 UK size , I weigh 95 kilogrammes. Am officially plus size. Be steadfast witnesses for Allah in equity, and let not hatred of any people seduce y…. Everything about him represents what I want in a man. The way he looks, the way he talks, his poise, mien, this is the prince, made just for….

Dear 1one4 Aunty, I am a 34 year old working class, single and searching muslimah. I am a 28 year old practicing Muslim and in dire need of advice because am abou…. My husband died in a plane crash a few years back and it has been very lonely ever since. I most…. Dear 1one4 Aunty, I have been deeply hurt lately and I fear I might be slipping into some kind of depression unless I get help quickly.

Reflections on Terrorism | Dr Hatem al-Haj |

My heart was broken, no, crushed by the one I thought loved me. I am a 29 year old …. Dear 1one4 Aunty, Please I do not want to be judged or anything, I just need candid advise from you. My name is Siraj and I am an auto engineer based in Kaduna. I have been married for a little over eight years and I da…. Most sisters that I approach for relationship agree with little or no attempt, but I sense it is all about my money. I am a man that loves with…. People say it's got nothing to do with me but I totally disagree.

I don't think it is when she has HIV, get pregnant, or used for ritual purposes before I…. Dear 1one4 Aunty, I have found the brother that I believe is my husband. He is my favourite colleague, but unfortunately he is taken already, by another colleague of ours. He compliments my dress sense everyday and we ha…. I need advise on how to get a sister out of a loveless marriage.


The husband maltreats and abuses all the time, but she…. Dear 1one4 Aunty, I am a good, God fearing man with everything going for me, but I have the misfortune of meeting the worst specie of women ever. I have checked and re-checked myself, but, honestly I can say with enough…. Dear 1one4 Aunty, 1one4 Aunty, please a disease is eating me up really badly and I hardly know what to do about it. Someone walks into a room and I start hating them because they are better dressed or prettier than myse…. Dear 1one4 Aunty, I have met the woman that I wish to spend the rest of my life with.

She is everything I want in a wife and much more. She makes me very happy and is a source of constant help and wisdom. This lady is s…. Dear 1one4 Aunty, I honestly feel I am married to the biggest baby on earth. My husband is otherwise a good man but I abhor his constant habit of consulting with his folks especially his mother before we make any major …. Dear 1one4 Aunty, At the end of every year, my husband and I would sit down for hours and properly analyse the entire state of our marriage. Mind you, we do this all through the year, but at this particular meeting, we t….

Dear 1one4 Aunty, I am a big spender. I want every style, colour and shade of clothes, shoes, bags, hijabs, caps and jewellery available in the market. I buy and buy and buy and I owe so much money I am afraid I might be…. Dear 1one4 Aunty A couple of months ago, I got an opportunity of a lifetime - a chance to emigrate to the United States. I work with in marketing communications while my wife works as a company secretary for an Insuranc…. Dear 1one4 Aunty, I am getting married soon. While I feel fortunate to have met a wonderful brother as my husband-to-be, he is developing cold feet about the whole marriage.

I have a high flying job in advertising and pu…. Dear 1one4 Aunty, I work in the marketing department in one of the top commercial banks in Lagos. My job is very tough but fulfilling especially on good days when I score major accounts. I got the best marketer and staff…. Dear 1one4 Aunty, Alhamdulilahi I fast all day, do a lot of zhikr and even attended a Ramadan lecture over the weekend. The problem is that I am a …. Dear 1one4 Aunty, I am a practising Muslim and believe in all the tenets of Islam.

I especially love the Ramadan period since it is the period of deep reflection and devotion to almighty Allah. The problem is that I find…. Dear 1one4 Aunty, I went to a friends' house on democracy day, someone also came in whilst I was there to see my friends' husband and my life has changed forever.

I have met my soul mate and greatest friend. Nothing has …. Dear 1one4 Aunty, I got married barely a year ago, my wedding was fantastic, I got married to a wonderful, pious Muslim. All sounds good but I am disillusioned about the whole notion of marriage and sincerely want out. Dear 1one4 Aunty, I got my dream job! I graduating a couple of years ago from a Nigerian University and then proceeded to the UK for a graduate degree.

Am back in the country now and just got the job that aligns with the…. Dear 1one4 Aunty, My husband has a violent temper.

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This heaviness from my feet. I could was a favor from Allah which He then see the far like the near and gives to whom He pleases. I was hear the far like the near. I could then aquainted with my entire then smell those who worshipped physiognomy: every organ; bone; Allah with the sweetness of their nerve; muscle; and hair follicle. I scent and the stinch of those was made to understand each of disobedient with the foulness of these from their distinctive grade their odor.

Mecca for pilgrimage and decided to The man wondered whether, there is stay and greet Sheikh Uthman bn any pilgrimage done in Sokoto, Fodio RA at Sokoto. On meeting because they are just outside the town sheikh RA he gave them options to of Sokoto according to the man. Eight insisted in Mecca. Sheikh RA instructed the on proceeding, because the journey on man to go down the small hill and find horse to Mecca took nine months and out whether he knows any of the men cannot delay any further, but one in whites down the hill.

He and was looking at the people moving stayed and waited for sheikh RA to around, Arabs and blacks when he saw instruct him on proceeding but the eight. The eight Arafat. Sheikh RA called the man and laughed at him and asked whether he asked him to put his pilgrimage cloth was in his right senses. They exclaimed which he did and the two strolled out this is Mecca. The man was puzzled of Sokoto.

After short walk, the man and showed them sheikh RA on top of saw a a hill which they climbed. And our blessed master, God. Some Sufis have this light very and exercise to develop and function very well, strongly flowing to the environment through the spiritual faculties in man need three items their faces they are referred to as Musawi Al- too to develop and function very well and Wirth.

This is because Moses AS was the first these three form the pillars of retreat; these to have such light flowing strongly to the are solitude, wakeful state and empty or half- environment from his face when he came out filled stomach. The Islamic type answers this reduced. Next slides will take a look at meditation. Sufi attains mastery in his Today rooms kept specially entire life he can observe for that purpose are found Muraqaba without a in Sufi centres. He is subconcious, he will witness perceiving, feeling or even seeing many things but cannot remember any.

He becomes conscious but knowledge flows from his subconscious mind. Infallible and complete knowledge flows to his conscious mind. He sees no physical things before him, but perceive its presence and have full knowledge of it. The Sufi starts seeing the multitude of unseen surrounding us. Invisible spirits and even angels can be seen by the Sufi at this stage. Like events unfolding itself in distant lands are made known to the Sufi, past an future events as well.

In this stage every aspect of the universe comes to the vicinity of the Sufi. He hears sounds clearly even from distant planets, he sees anywhere he wills in this universe, he smells fragrance from far town and finally he can stretch his hand to touch anything however far it is in the universe. The universe becomes like a model before the Sufi. At this stage the mysterious powers of evidence stages are available to the Sufi even in none meditation stage, even when he is absorbed in public or occupied with human activities. His awareness about God to divine ones. At this stage divine becomes so strong that he becomes powers existing in divine attributes not interested in the awareness manifest themselves in the sufi.

Some of God :- at this stage the Sufi starts the penetrated veils took shape drawing to the divine proximity again and blocked the Sufi unveiling the veils that stand proximity with God, he loses the between the creator and the created. The Sufi is made to knowledge of the divine attribute. Gradually the Sufi come back to his The stage of the Sufi becomes veiled human manifestation and from the commons. The mind of the Sufi love him, so I become his sense remains dissolved in God, of hearing with which he hears, nothing stays in it but God; his and his sense of sight with which body remains with the humans he sees, and his hand with which and the Universe.

Like remedy from physical or spiritual diseases and defects. The Sufi started with awakening his heart where most spiritual energies are sleeping. In this mode the only goal of the Sufi is God nothing more and nothing less. Next slide will explain this. He should find the closest Sheikh in his Silsila Spiritual chain , preferably the one they once lived together and for better result the Sheikh should be deceased. At this stage, the mind- focus of the Sufi advances to focus on the prophet SAW.

The Sufi is one step to the peak of meditation. It is removing of veils between the meditating Sufi and majestic attributes of God which are preserved for His selected servants that excelled. It is coming closer to these attributes that are referred to as divine proximity.

This is the Alif posture. This is Laam posture. Ignore dream. This is one of the greatest mysteries and the most obscure point, a mind that is not having a seat in the palace of God may never grasp its apprehension! Seeing God but the heart of my servant can. Then He mounted the throne. He contact with all the divine attributes of splendour and majesty of knoweth all that entereth the earth and all that emergeth God, then one will cease to be one and can then see God therefrom and all that cometh from the sky and that Almighty.

And Allah is seer of what ye do. This explains the divine And He revealed on His servant what He revealed. At that environment divine attributes. This is by their spiritual progression and where Moses AS was, there is no such spiritual figure and the gaining divine attention. However, there are other filthy or low only object closer is mountain. Moses AS was resurrected later. Almighty, all creatures coming closer to this type of saint feels immediately the presence of God absolutely and perfectly. This will inshAllah be discussed on divine presence until he became in due course.

These grades are Divine and bestow on saints by the Almighty out of His infinite mercy. We are two spirits dwelling in one body. If you see me, you see Him; And if you see Him, you see us both. Sheikh Junayd Baghdadi RA. He who zealously makes him to speak in the ecstasy of the defends his religion is dearer to Allah Divine Splendour feeling every than he who has a good opinion of Manifested Divine Attribute so close as if anyone. This confirmed Tajalliyatil Haqq. The spirit becomes aware of the immediate needs of the universe from these attributes and it provides the universe with these needs as permitted by God.

This point may not be necessarily understood at this point, nevertheless you will understand it if God wills. This is widely body of the Sufi. Volume of literatures were written by different Sufis having poems and songs. This serve instrument particularly a small hand-held drum that was used to as permission to instrumental welcome prophet music which is having no any Muhammad SAW when he came illegal content.

On the same light if in a vocal music. We will talk instrumental music contain about Al-Burdah inshAllah in obscene language, contact subsequent slides between opposite sex and its like then it is unlawful, otherwise it is lawful. Some of like Fiqhu, hadith, Tafseer, these writings are extinct Seerah, Tasawwuf etc.

Likewise on Arabic language. You can download copies. Sufi Litanies An unauthorised litany is a litany that its sacred powers are opened to anyone who recites it, and anyone coming in contact with it can recite it. Each litany originated as unauthorised. Sufi Litanies An authorised litany is a litany that its sacred powers are reserved to special anyone who recites it after gaining due authorisation, and not anyone coming in contact with it can recite it.

Sufi Litany Two scholars attend the prestigious Stanford University to study the same course. One of them conducts full registration process and enrolment while the other just attend the classes. After they finish all lectures; both the two have the knowledge, but only one is going to have a certificate. This is the likeness of authorised litany and unauthorised one. The authorisation on him and his initiation ceremony grants disciples to recite Istighfar authorisation to such initiate. Battles justified and on justified courses. Battles to fight oppression against Islam and the Muslims.

He led a smal calvary and his disciples, leading to and infantry troop against the migration to Gudu. They supplying medic, logistics and charge enemies from left and ammo to the remaining right wing simultaneously formation. Bello RA formation. Yusef Himself. And I found in His presence the then returned them to my master Abd'l- master of men and jinn, our master Qaadir 'l-Jaylaani. He was then ordered Muhammad, may Allah bless him and by all present to place the turban upon grant him peace. With him were the me. They said, 'Dress him and place the Companions, the Prophets and the turban upon him and name him with the protected friends awliyya.

They name which has been designated to him. Then the savior of men and jinn, my master Abd'l-Qaadir 'l-Jaylaani me and placed the turban upon me. He came with a green cloak which was edged then called me the Imam 'l-Awliyya the with the statement - laa ilaha illa Allah Leader of the Protected Friends. He then Muhammadur Rasuulu Allah - and a commanded me to the good and forbade turban which was edged with - Qul Huwa me indecency. He then girded me with Allahu Ahad. He then gave these to the the Sayf 'l-Haqq the Sword of Truth and Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him ordered me to unleash it against the and grant him peace, who then placed enemies of Allah.

He then commanded them upon his breast for some time me what he commanded me. Prisoner of wars shall be Thousand of years before treated very well and give Geneva conventions, the them options that are not blessed prophet SAW very difficult to regain their stipulated prerogatives of war freedoms.

Genuine surrender offer by convention stands: enemies should be 1. No women, children, the accepted. Any of the enemies fighter civilians shall be attack. No trees, crops, agricultural shall be immuned. No church or synagogue the town shall be protected shall be destroyed.

No weapon that can Islamic troop. Looting, confiscation, rape chemical, biological and and any war crime is not atomic weapons shall be tolerated and any Islamic used by Islamic fighters. Revolutionary practice by the citizens. Supreme leader. Council cannot be members of the remaining 3 arms.

Faqeer4sure gmail. Read Free For 30 Days. Sufism in Brief. Description: A brief description of Sufism Islamic Mysticism to a beginner on the study or practice of Sufism. Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Carousel Previous Carousel Next. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Version Documents Similar To Sufism in Brief. Abu Muhammad. Isma'eel Bakare. Ali Sarwari-Qadri. Mohammed Siraj. Muzamil Khan. Termizi Yaacob. Tanko Yakubu. Amadu Sarr. Samir Hariche. More From Abu Muhammad. Popular in Religious Belief And Doctrine.

Marguerite Paizis. Alison Lanser Phillips. Gregory Brown. Salahudeen Mohammed. Wisdom in Col 1 Contribution and Significance. Paul Amami. In recent years, the rate of rural to urban migration increased rapidly as a result of the deteriorating agricultural conditions. Most rural residents live in villages consisting of clusters of clay structures with thatched roofs and dirt floors.

Most of the urban poor live in crowded shantytowns, which lack urban services. Earth Science Education in Sudan. The first geological department in Sudan was founded in in the University of Khartoum. In the s, six more geological departments have been added in the newer universities. The types of courses offered include Diploma, B. General , B. Honours , M. The Geology programmes are strongly supported by field work training and mapping. Final-year students follow specialised training in one of the following topics: hydrogeology, geophysics, economic geology, sedimentology and engineering geology.

The final assessment and grading are decided with the help of internal and external examiners. Entry into the Geology programmes is based on merit and performance. Employment opportunities are limited and are found mainly in the Government's geological offices, the universities and research centres, and private companies.

The Department of Geology at the University of Khartoum has long-standing internal and external links with outside partners. This has been manifested in the training of staff members, the donation of teaching materials and laboratory facilities. The chief problems currently facing Earth Science Education in Sudan are underfunding, poor equipment, laboratory facilities and logistics. Other problems include a shortage of staff, absence of research, lack of supervision and emigration of staff members.

Urgent measures are needed to assess and evaluate the status of Earth Science Education in terms of objectives, needs and difficulties encountered. Earth Science Education is expected to contribute significantly to the exploitation of mineral resources and socio-economic development in the Sudan.

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  • Agricultural fields, Khartoum, Sudan , Africa. This herringbone pattern of irrigated agricultural fields near Khartoum, Sudan The region contains thousands of these rectangular fields bounded by canals which carry water from both the White and Blue Nile Rivers. A crop rotation system is used so that some fields are in cotton, millit, sorghum or fallow to conserve moisture and control weeds and insects.

    See also STS Female Genital Mutilation in Sudan. PubMed Central. This procedure is harmful to women and causes many complications during pregnancy and childbirth. The survey was carried out in and included women aged between 14 — 49 years. A logistic regression model was used to find an association between dependent and independent variables. Women who had circumcised daughters were A significant association was observed between circumcised women and their marital status, daughter circumcision, and the level of education.

    Poor women with low level of education are at high risk for this phenomenon. More efforts have to be provided to end this dangerous practice. Female genital mutilation or female circumcision FGM is a serious health problem in Sudan. This study aims to determine the female genital mutilation FGM and its associated factors in Sudan. The survey was carried out in and included women aged between 14 - 49 years. Total numbers of women were included in the survey and out of the The practice of female genital mutilation is spread all over the country.

    Language Situation in Post-War Sudan. The theme behind this paper is to review the language policy and language planning in the Sudan , after the institutionalization of peace; by exploring the recent policy of political factions in the North and the South towards languages in post-war Sudan. This effort aims at encouraging non-Arabic speaking-ethnic-groups to accept the Arabic…. Rift Valley Fever, Sudan , and Aradaib, Imadeldin E. To elucidate whether Rift Valley fever virus RVFV diversity in Sudan resulted from multiple introductions or from acquired changes over time from 1 introduction event, we generated complete genome sequences from RVFV strains detected during the and outbreaks.

    Phylogenetic analyses of small, medium, and large RNA segment sequences indicated several genetic RVFV variants were circulating in Sudan , which all grouped into Kenya-1 or Kenya-2 sublineages from the — eastern Africa epizootic. Bayesian analysis of sequence differences estimated that diversity among the and Sudan RVFV variants shared a most recent common ancestor circa The sequences indicate recent movement of RVFV and support the need for surveillance to recognize when and where RVFV circulates between epidemics, which can make data from prediction tools easier to interpret and preventive measures easier to direct toward high-risk areas.

    Risk analysis.

    Mahan Kosh Vol 1 Kahan Singh Nabha - English Translation

    Since the first acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS case was confirmed in , Senegal has conducted an aggressive prevention campaign. CFA devaluation has made Senegal attractive to tourists and business visitors--another factor responsible for growth of the legalized commercial sex industry. Although sex workers are instructed in condom use and tested annually for HIV, only of the registered sex workers have reported for check-ups, and the majority of prostitutes are unregistered. Public education has involved outreach to religious leaders, promotion of affordable condoms, and distribution of over 75, leaflets to key target populations.

    Special courts, under military jurisdiction, dealt with offenses affecting national security or involving As early Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate, intracellular, parasitic protozoan within the phylum Apicomplexa that causes toxoplasmosis in mammalian hosts including humans and birds. We used modified direct agglutination test for the screening of the animals' sera collected in Senegal. In total, animals' sera have been studied: bovines, 43 sheep, 52 goats, 63 horses, 13 donkeys and dogs.

    The collection of sera was performed in four different regions of Senegal : Dakar, Sine Saloum, Kedougou and Basse Casamance from to Private dogs from villages were more often to have the anti-Toxoplasma antibodies compared to security society-owned dogs from Dakar. It may be explained by different meal consumed by dogs factory-produced meal for dogs from Dakar vs. Intense circulation of T. Tropical climate with high temperature and humidity is favorable for the conservation of oocysts of T. Results presented here may contribute to the evaluation of the risks of toxoplasmosis in humans in Senegal.

    Training of the midwife in Senegal. The profession of midwifery continues to hold a prominent place in the health manpower structure of many developing countries. The training program at the School of Midwifery in Senegal lasts for 3 years and is based on the teaching in French midwifery schools. Because of the special conditions in Senegal , the objective of the teaching is to train midwives to be multiskilled workers who can deliver health care services in preventive as well as in curative medicine, in both rural and urban settings, and in the maternity clinic as well as in the community.

    The following proposals for revising the training were developed: 1 the level of admission will become the baccalaureate; 2 the nursing training will be strengthened and the length of rural field practice will be extended to at least 3 months, including provisions for practical application of primary health care; 3 in pediatrics, more stress will be placed on diet counseling, home visits, and the treatment of infectious and parasitic diseases; 4 training will cover administration, supervision, evaluation, and maintenance of materials and facilities.

    The midwife in Senegal also plays a primary role in family planning, and in family planning centers should be reponsible for gynecological examinations; giving assistance in the choice of contraceptive methods; placement, follow-up, and removal of IUDs; and detection of sterility, genital and mammary cancers, and sexually transmissible diseases. The project of an interdisciplinary research institute in Senegal was initiated in in Senegal West Africa and became a template for a similar project in the US in Since then, numerous meetings and presentations have been held at various national and international institutions, workshops and conferences.

    The current development of this partnership includes drafts for a full design of all systems at each facility, as well as the physics, applied health and educational programs to be implemented. The Senegal facility was conceived for scientific capacity building and equally to act as a focal point aimed at using the local scientific expertise. An anticipated outcome would be a contribution to the reduction of an ever-growing brain drain process suffered by the country, and the African continent in general.

    The development of the project led also to a strong African orientation of the facility: built for international collaboration, it is to be a pan-African endeavor and to serve primarily African countries. The facility received a presidential approval in a meeting and will develop an interdisciplinary program centered on a strong materials science research which will also allow for the establishment of an advanced analytical physical chemistry laboratory.

    A central part of the facility will be linked to state-of-the art accelerator mass spectrometry, cyclotron and low energy electromagnetic accelerator systems. The marine fishery in Senegal , West Africa, is a major source of employment and food security. It currently faces the consequences of ecological degradation. This paper examines job satisfaction among small-scale purse seine fishers, who constitute one of the dominant fishing metiers in Senegal.

    The research sample consists of 80 purse seine…. Ebola Virus Imported from Guinea to Senegal , In August , a case caused by virus imported from Guinea occurred in Senegal , most likely resulting from nonsecure funerals and travel. Preparedness and surveillance in Senegal probably prevented secondary cases.

    Pakistan and Afghanistan Librarianship. In March and April , the author was a guest of the U. Information Service on a two week trip to Pakistan and Afghanistan. During this stay, 30 libraries in five cities were visited. This paper describes this trip and relates the library happenings in these countries. It was obvious that Pakistan librarianship had advanced beyond the…. Maritime Strategy in Pakistan. Rizvi, Shamim Ahmed. Pottery from Pakistan. A Handbook. One of three handbooks dealing with pottery traditions from around the world, this packet draws together information about historical, ethnographic, and pottery traditions of Pakistan.

    The handbook begins with a brief discussion of Pakistan 's land and people, a short history of Pakistan , Islamic pottery traditions, and Pakistan potters and…. A climate trend analysis of Sudan. Summer rains in western and southern Sudan have declined by percent since the mids. Observed warming of more than 1 degree Celsius is equivalent to another percent reduction in rainfall for crops. The warming and drying have impacted southern Darfur and areas around Juba. Rainfall declines west of Juba threaten southern Sudan 's future food production prospects. In many cases, areas with changing climate are coincident with zones of substantial conflict, suggesting some degree of association; however, the contribution of climate change to these conflicts is not currently understood.

    Rapid population growth and the expansion of farming and pastoralism under a more variable climate regime could dramatically increase the number of at-risk people in Sudan over the next 20 years. Between and , the laboratory of Paludologie of IRD at Dakar collected over 5, snakes from all over Senegal. By studying this collection, an entirely new species was discovered for science and eight new species for Senegal. The presence of many specimens of rare species and the great number of localities from which snakes were collected also allowed us to solve several delicate taxonomic problems and better to specify the biogeography of Senegalese snakes.

    Currently, the presence in Senegal of at least 55 different species has been established with certainty. The data collected simultaneously on the burden of snakebites for public health shows considerable differences according to geographic area, with populations from south-eastern Senegal being more exposed to the risk of death by snakebite. Aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan.

    To review the studied risk factors that linked to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan. There have been numerous reports in the increase in the incidence of oral cancer from various parts of the world. A recent trend for a rising incidence of oral cancer, with the absence of the well established risk factors, has raised concern. Although, there are inconsistent data on incidence and demographical factors, studies suggest that the physiologic response to risk factors by men and women vary in different populations. This review principally examines 33 publications devoted to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan , in addition to some risk factors that are commonly practiced in the Sudan.

    Several studies examining risk factors for oral cancer include tobacco use Smoked and Smokeless , alcohol consumption, occupational risk, familial risk, immune deficits, virus infection and genetic factors. Toombak use and infection with high risk Human Papilloma Virus HPV were extensively investigated and linked to the aetiology of oral cancer in Sudan. Aetiology of Oral Cancer in the Sudan. Material and Methods This review principally examines 33 publications devoted to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan , in addition to some risk factors that are commonly practiced in the Sudan.

    Results Several studies examining risk factors for oral cancer include tobacco use Smoked and Smokeless , alcohol consumption, occupational risk, familial risk, immune deficits, virus infection and genetic factors. Conclusions Toombak use and infection with high risk Human Papilloma Virus HPV were extensively investigated and linked to the aetiology of oral cancer in Sudan.

    Yellow Fever Outbreak, Southern Sudan , Onyango, Clayton O. In May , an outbreak of fatal hemorrhagic fever, caused by yellow fever virus, occurred in southern Sudan. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus belonged to the East African genotype, which supports the contention that yellow fever is endemic in East Africa with the potential to cause large outbreaks in humans. Religious Extremism in Pakistan. They then use this socio-economic link to They then use this socio-economic link to indoctrinate citizens with extremist ideologies, thus creating a A climate trend analysis of Senegal.

    This brief report, drawing from a multi-year effort by the U. These analyses are based on quality-controlled station observations. Vanguard family planning acceptors in Senegal. This study examines contraceptive use among clients at the three clinics providing family planning services in Dakar, Senegal in early Most clients first became interested in family planning following the birth of a child, and most are interested in spacing future pregnancies, although one-third state that they want no more children.

    The clinic itself was found to be an important determinant of the type of contraceptive used, with only the government-operated clinic providing a balance between IUDs, oral contraceptives, and barrier methods. Nearly half of the clients interviewed said that a lack of knowledge about contraception is the reason for the low contraceptive prevalence rates among Senegalese women; another frequently cited reason was the opposition of the husband.

    Most clients reported the broadcast media to be the best means of providing family planning information to potential acceptors. The persistance of such migration trends from the country to cities deepens regional disparities, compounds the difficulties and cost of city management and development, specially in the case of Dakar, and runs counter to the goals of social and economic development plans The growing importance of such phenomena calls for the designing of corrective measures in favour of rural areas and small towns in order to settle rural populations and halt the inordinate and chaotic geographical growth of large cities.

    Failing this, development efforts may well be compromised. Female employment reduces fertility in rural Senegal. Economic growth and modernization of society are generally associated with fertility rate decreases but which forces trigger this is unclear. In this paper we assess how fertility changes with increased labor market participation of women in rural Senegal.

    Evidence from high-income countries suggests that higher female employment rates lead to reduced fertility rates but evidence from developing countries at an early stage of demographic transition is largely absent. We concentrate on a rural area in northern Senegal where a recent boom in horticultural exports has been associated with a sudden increase in female off-farm employment. Using survey data we show that employed women have a significantly higher age at marriage and at first childbirth, and significantly fewer children.

    As causal identification strategy we use instrumental variable and difference-in-differences estimations, combined with propensity score matching. Results imply that female employment is a strong instrument for empowering rural women, reducing fertility rates and accelerating the demographic transition in poor countries. The effectiveness of family planning programs can increase if targeted to areas where female employment is increasing or to female employees directly because of a higher likelihood to reach women with low-fertility preferences.

    Our results show that changes in fertility preferences not necessarily result from a cultural evolution but can also be driven by sudden and individual changes in economic opportunities. On Sept. The city of Hyderabad is near the middle of the image. Sickle cell disease in western Sudan : genetic epidemiology and predictors of knowledge attitude and practices. A community-based, descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in three towns. Three hundred and seventy-two households were polled, and blood samples for haemoglobin phenotyping were collected from individuals.

    Sociodemographic, socio-economic and KAP data were collected using investigator-administered questionnaires. Descriptive, frequency distribution and multiple regression analyses were performed. About Consanguineous marriages were reported by The highest percentage of homozygous SCD was 2. HbS allele frequency was highest in children aged years The average HbS frequency across all age groups was The estimated change in log odds of having the SS genotype per year increase in age was - 0.

    This represents a non-statistically significant 2. Pakistan , as an agriculture based economy, is vulnerable to various hydrometeorological hazards ranging from tropical cyclones, thunderstorms, tornadoes, drought, rain, hail, snow, lightning, fog, wind, temperature extremes, air pollution, and climatic change. However, three of the most pressing challenges in terms of water resource availability, that are different in nature, but are inter-linked to each other are discussed over here. We begin with the Karakoram Anomaly that is considered as one of the most mysterious and most speculated phenomena on Planet Earth.

    Though, it is confined to the glaciers in the eastern Hindukush, western Karakoram and northwestern Himalayan mountain ranges of Northern Pakistan that are not responding to global warming in the same manner as their counterparts elsewhere, because, their retreat rates are less than the global average, and some are either stable or growing. However, the Karakoram Anomaly has baffled scientific society for more than a decade since its earliest discovery in the year The reasons of the Karakoram anomaly were mainly associated to physiography of the area and role of climate was considered marginal till now, as climate is influencing glaciers differently all over the globe.

    Here, for the first time, we present a hydro-meteorological perspective based on five decades of synoptic weather observations collected by the meteorological network of Pakistan. Analysis of this unique data set indicates that increased regional scale humidity, cloud cover, and precipitation, along with decreased net radiation, near-surface wind speed, potential evapotranspiration and river flow, especially during the summer season, represent a substantial change in the energy, mass and momentum fluxes that are facilitating the establishment of the Karakoram Anomaly.

    In turn, it is influencing the availability of glacier melt in River Indus in summer season. Secondly, we developed a hydrometeorological data sets for Pakistan as they. Climate variability and environmental stress in the Sudan -Sahel zone of West Africa. In this article we assess climate variability and environmental stress in the region. Households in Senegal , Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, and Nigeria were asked about climatic changes and their perceptions were compared across north-south and west-east rainfall gradients.

    However, August rainfall declined, and could therefore potentially explain the contrasting negative household perceptions of rainfall trends. Adaptation measures to counter environmental degradation included use of manure, reforestation, soil and water conservation, and protection of fauna and vegetation. Barite in Pakistan.

    Before almost no barite deposits were known in Pakistan. Discovery of such deposits relatively close to oil fields in northern Pakistan in led to increased barite production from to and to doubling of production in , firmly establishing new industry for the country. During and , most of the known barite deposits in Pakistan were geologically mapped, and minimum reserves were estimated to be 1,, short tons. The largest single deposit, Ehuzdar, is estimated to contain more than 1,, short tons of barite.

    Although several vein deposits contain good quality barite, 90 percent of estimated reserves are in replacement deposits concordant to bedding in sedimentary rocks. Host rocks range in age from Precambrian to Pleistocene, but the periods of barite deposition are probably Jurassic or younger. Some barite concentrated in sandstone may be of detrital origin. In late , demand for barite in Pakistan was estimated at about 8, tons annually. Although domestic barite resources exceed this figure, less than 40 percent of demand was being supplied by domestic nines in Transportation costs and limited production facilities are partly responsible for output, but the lack of quality control is a major obstacle.

    Producers are not generally familiar with commercial specifications for barite and have net recognized that their products are too impure to be successfully marketed without installing the necessarycontrol procedures of sampling and beneficiation. Retrospective measles outbreak investigation: Sudan , Recent population-based studies of measles incidence and deaths in Sudan are not available. To determine the epidemiology and case-fatality rate CFR of measles, we conducted a retrospective outbreak investigation in two states in northern Sudan. South Sudan achieved political independence in , before plunging into a series of civil wars that have culminated with the signing of the Inter-Governmental Authority for Development, IGAD, driven peace agreement.

    Land use change and terrestrial carbon stocks in Senegal. Environmental degradation resulting from long-term drought and land use change has affected terrestrial carbon C stocks within Africa's Sahel. We estimated Senegal 's terrestrial carbon stocks in , , and using an inventory procedure involving satellite images revealing historical land use change, and recent field measurements of standing carbon stocks occurring in soil and plants.

    Senegal was divided into eight ecological zones containing 11 land uses. In , savannas, cultivated lands, forests, and steppes were the four largest land uses in Senegal , occupying 70, 22, 2. The proportion of C residing in biomass decreased with time, from 55 percent in to 38 percent in Most of the terrestrial C flux in was attributed to biomass C reduction.

    Human disturbance accounted for only 22 percent of biomass C loss in , suggesting that the effects of long-term Sahelian drought continue to play an overriding role in ecosystem change. Some carbon mitigation strategies for Senegal were investigated, including potential C sequestration levels. Opportunities for C mitigation exist but are constrained by available knowledge and access to resources.

    Pakistan Country Analysis Brief. Over the past few years, Pakistan has experienced a major energy crisis as a result of expensive fuel sources, chronic natural gas and electricity shortages, circular debt, and insufficient transmission and distribution systems. Global Citizenship in Pakistan.

    This paper attempts to understand the value of the ideology of global citizenship in Pakistan by looking at students' values and attitudes. In particular, it explores students' understanding of the term "global citizen" and their attitude towards the concept. Using a case study approach, interviews were conducted with six students in a…. Pakistans Nuclear Weapons. Proliferation A fundamental aspect of nuclear security is ensuring that In early July, the country of Sudan , wracked by civil war since the s, officially split into two separate nations, Sudan and South Sudan.

    Six months earlier, over a seven-day period, the people in southern Sudan had voted in a national referendum on whether to secede from the North. The voters had two choices: "Separation" or…. Implementing haemophilia care in Senegal , West Africa. Despite significant progres on haemophilia care in developed world, this disease remains unknown in many sub-Saharan African countries. The objectives of this article were to report Senegalese experience on the management of haemophilia care through 18 years of follow-up.

    This cohort study included patients haemophilia A, 13 haemophilia B , followed in Dakar's haemophilia treatment centre from to Our study reported a prevalence of 2. From the period to , significant progress was seen including All patients were low responders since inhibitor titre was between 1. Disabilities were seen in Implementing haemophilia care in sub-Saharan Africa is a great challenge as this disease is not yet counted in national health problems in many countries. Lessons learned from this study show a significant improvement in diagnosis and prognosis parameters.

    This emphasizes the needs to set up such follow-up initiatives and to enhance medical and lay cooperation for better results. Uric acid lithiasis in the Sudan. Fifty-seven per cent of Urinary Calculi in the Sudan contain Uric Acid, 20 per cent in the pure form and 37 per cent mixed with other constituents mainly calcium oxalate. The peak age presentation of urolithiasis is years with more prediliction to males than females. An earlier study documented a high incidence of hyperuricaemia in Sudanese people.

    It is probable that "voluntary dehydration" and hyperuricaemia acting together may help in the formation of uric acid stones on the surface of which other crystals mainly calcium oxalate may be deposited to form the bigger calculi which are commonly encountered in this country. Describes a study which attempts to link micro and macro approaches in the study of societal multilingualism while introducing a diachronic perspective. The sociolinguistic profile of Senegal is used as a point of departure followed by an outline of sociohistorical factors which contributed to language use.

    Discusses the social implications of…. Energy and environment: A political ecology of woodfuels in Senegal. This study examines relationships between energy use and the exploitation of woodland natural resources in the West African nation of Senegal. As in many other countries in the developing world, the majority of the population in Senegal depend on woodfuels, i. Consequences of this situation include added pressure on the country's limited natural resource base, and increased socioeconomic hardship, particularly for women, as woodfuel resources become increasingly scarce.

    Woodfuel energy problems in developing countries are typically described in terms of an imbalance between supply and demand that is driven by rapid population growth. However, recent research suggests that a number of other factors should be explored in order to achieve a more thorough understanding of the relationship between woodfuel energy and forest resource management.

    New Perspectives on Islam in Senegal

    This study attempts to determine what some of these factors are, and to explain how they inform the energy-environment situation in the case of Senegal. In addition, I examine the scope for addressing Senegal 's woodfuel problem through greater local community participation in managing energy and natural resources, a current thrust in many international initiatives designed to help the country cope with this persistent problem. A relatively new conceptual framework for the analysis of human-environment relationshipsviz.

    I attempt to show how political ecology can contribute to the resolution of Senegal 's energy-environment dilemma by considering a more inclusive suite of social, economic, political, and environmental variables than has been explored by previous approaches. Findings from the research demonstrate the ability of the political ecology approach to capture many heretofore unexplored factors related to the energy-environment nexus in Senegal.

    A detailed matrix is generated that illustrates the. Country watch: Pakistan. In Pakistan , which has a high fertility rate, affordable prices of condoms and family planning services attract low-income residents. This was shown by the two projects: the condom distribution scheme and the family planning franchise. However, in the price doubled in order to recover the costs, which resulted in a decline in sales.

    Thus, in PSI and Social Marketing Pakistan franchised the Green Star project that aimed to raise the quality of private sector family planning clinics serving low-income women and to increase the availability and use of female-controlled contraception. By , the CSM project was selling over 80 million condoms annually. Assessment of water availability and demand in Lake Guiers , Senegal.

    Assessment of water availability and demand in Lake Guiers, Senegal Water resources are critical to economic growth and social development. In most African countries, supply of drinking water to satisfy population needs is a key issue because of population growth and climate and land use change. During the last three decades, increasing population, changing patterns of water demand, and concentration of population and economic activities in urban areas has pressurize Senegal 's freshwater resources.

    To overcome this deficit, Senegal turned, to the exploitation of the Lake Guiers. It is the sole water reservoir which can be used extensively as a stable freshwater. Its water is use for irrigating crops and sugar refinery and as a drinking water resource for urban centres, including Dakar, the capital city of Senegal , as well as for the local population and animal herds.

    To ensure sustainability, a greater understanding of Lake Guiers's water resources and effective management of its use will be required. In this study we developed and quantified future water situation water availability and demand in Lake Guiers under scenarios of climate change and population growth until , using the water management model WEAP Water Evaluation And Planning system.


    The results show that the pressure on Lake Guiers's water resources will increase, leading to greater competition between agriculture and municipal demand site. Decreasing inflows due to climate change will aggravate this situation. WEAP results offer basis to assister lake Guiers water resources manager for an efficient long-term planning and management. Morocco and Senegal : Faces of Islam in Africa. These projects were completed by participants in the Fulbright-Hays summer seminar in Morocco and Senegal in The participants represented various regions of the United States and different grade levels and subject areas.

    Geothermal areas in Pakistan.